Psychology, Interamerican
Seven Implicit Considerations to be Explicitly Addressed in Empirically Based Psychotherapies


implicit processes
empirically based psychotherapies

How to Cite

La Roche, M. J., Adames, H. Y., & Chavez-Dueñas, N. Y. (2017). Seven Implicit Considerations to be Explicitly Addressed in Empirically Based Psychotherapies. Revista Interamericana De Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 51(2).


The psychological literature on implicit processes (IPs), which encompasses an individual’s thoughts, actions, and feelings that occur independently of conscious awareness, has expanded in the last two decades. During this same period, the proliferation of empirically based psychotherapies (EBPs), with emphasis on conscious processes, has gained momentum among many mental health practitioners. However, the literature on the role of IPs in empirically based psychotherapies (EBPs) is sparse. The main goal of this paper is to suggest IP findings that can be used to enhance EBP’s efficacy and effectiveness. Seven IP findings that can have important applications for EBPs are highlighted. Within each of these seven considerations, the impact of IPs on the psychotherapeutic process is discussed.


Adames, H. Y., & Chavez-Dueñas, N. Y. (2017). Cultural foundations and interventions in Latino/a mental health: History, theory, and within group differences. New York, NY: Routledge.

Adames, H. Y., Chavez-Dueñas, N. Y., & Organista, K. C. (2016). Skin color matters in Latino/a communities: Identifying, understanding, and addressing Mestizaje Racial Ideologies in clinical practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. doi:

Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice. (2006). Evidence-based practice in psychology. American Psychologist, 61(4), 271-285. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.61.4.271

Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B, A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2004). No place for nostalgia in science: A response to Arkes and Tetlock. Psychological Inquiry, 15(4), 279-310. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli1504_02

Bandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology & Health, 13, 623-649. doi:10.1080/08870449808407422

Bargh, J. (2014). The historical origins of priming as the preparation of behavioral responses: Unconscious carryover and contextual influences of real-world importance. In D.C., Molden (Ed.), Understanding priming effects in social psychology (pp. 218-233). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Bargh, J.A. (1994). The four horsemen of automaticity: Awareness, intention, efficiency and control in social cognition. In R.S. Wyer Jr. and T.K. Srull (Eds.), The handbook of social cognition (Vol. 2, pp.1-40). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bargh, J. A., Chaiken, S., Govender, R., & Pratto, F. (1992). The generality of the automatic attitude activation effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62(6), 893- 912. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.62.6.893

Bargh, J. & Morsella, E. (2008). The unconscious mind. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 73-79. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00064.x

Barlow, D. H. (2004). Psychological treatments. American Psychologist, 59, 869–879. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.9.869

Barlow, D., Farchione, T., Fairholme, C., Ellard, K., Boisseau, C., Allen, L., & Ehrenreich-May, J. (2011). Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders. Oxford University Press: NY.

Barry, E., Naus, M., & Rehm, L. (2006). Depression, implicit memory, and self: A revised memory model of emotion. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(6), 719-745. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2005.06.003

Boston Change Process Study Group (BCPSG). (2010). Change in psychotherapy: A unifying paradigm. New York, NY: Norton.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Chavez-Dueñas, N.Y., Adames, H.Y. & Organista, K.C. (2014). Skin-color prejudice and within group racial discrimination: Historical and current impact on Latino/a populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 36(1), 3-26. doi: 10.1177/0739986313511306

Cortina, M., & Liotti, G. (2007). New approaches to understanding unconscious process: Implicit and explicit memory systems. International forum of psychoanalyses, 16, 204-212. doi:10.1080/08037060701676326

Cozolino, L. (2014). The neuroscience of human relationships: Attachment and the developing social brain (2nd Ed). New York, NY: Norton.

Damasio, A. (2000). The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers.

Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Dijksterhuis, A. (2010). Automaticity and the unconscious. In S. Fiske, D., Gilbert, and G., Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 228– 266). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Dijksterhuis, A., & Nordgren, L. F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(2), 95-109. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2006.00007.x

Doidge, N. (2007). The brain that changes itself: Stories of personal triumph from the frontiers of brain science. New York, NY: Viking/Penguin.

Fogassi, L., & Ferrari, P. (2007). Mirror neurons and the evolution of embodied language. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(3). 136-141. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 8721.2007.00491.x

Fonagy, P. & Gergely, G. (2005). Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. New York: NY: Other Press

Franklin, A.J. (2004). From brotherhood to manhood: How Black men rescue their relationships and dreams from the invisibility syndrome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Freud, S. (1915/1974). Repression. In Standard edition (Vol. 14, pp. 143–158). Newark, DE. Hogarth Press.

Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132(5), 692-731. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.5.692

Gawronski, B., & LeBel, E. P. (2008). Understanding patterns of attitude change: When implicit measures show change, but explicit measures do not. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(5), 1355-1361. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2008.04.005

Greenwald, A.G., & Banaji, M.R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem and

stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4-27. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4

Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 17-41. doi:10.1037/a0015575

Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(6), 1464-1480. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1464

Heilman, K. M., Nadeau, S. E., & Beversdorf, D. O. (2003). Creative innovation: Possible brain mechanisms. Neurocase, 9(5), 369-379. doi:10.1076/neur.9.5.369.16553

Heine, S.J. (2010) Cultural Psychology. In S.T. Fiske, D.T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, (5th ed.) (pp. 1423-1464). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Heine, S.J., & Norenzayan, A. (2006). Towards a psychological science for a cultural species. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1(3), 251-269. doi:10.1111/j.1745- 6916.2006.00015.x

Higgins, E. T., & Bargh, J. A. (1987). Social cognition and social perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 38369-425. doi:10.1146/

Hilgard, E.R. (1980). The trilogy of the mind: Cognition, affection and conation. Journal of History of Behavioral Sciences, 16, 107-117. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(198004)16:2<107

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Klavina, E., Schröder-Abé, M., & Schütz, A. (2012). Facets of self-esteem at an implicit level? Investigation of implicit–explicit correlations and development of four IATs. Personality And Individual Differences, 53(5), 693-698. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2012.05.028

Kleinman, A. (1988). The illness narratives: Suffering, healing & the human condition. New York, NY: Basic Books.

La Roche, M.J. (2013). Cultural Psychotherapy: Theory, methods and practice. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

La Roche, M. J., & Christopher, M. S. (2008). Culture and empirically supported treatments: On the road to a collision? Culture & Psychology, 14(3), 333-356. doi:10.1177/1354067X08092637

La Roche, M. J., & Christopher, M. S. (2009). Changing paradigms from empirically supported treatment to evidence-based practice: A cultural perspective. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 396-402. doi:10.1037/a0015240

Nakash, O., & Alegria, M. (2012). Examination of the role of implicit clinical judgment during the mental health intake. Qualitative Health Research, 23(5), 645-654. doi:10.1177/1049732312471732

Nock, M, K., & Banaji, M. R. (2007). Prediction of suicide ideation and attempts among adolescents using a brief performance-based test. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(5), 707-715. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.75.5.707

Nosek, B. A., & Riskind, R. G. (2012). Policy implications of implicit social cognition. Social Issues and Policy Review, 6(1), 113-147. doi:10.1111/j.1751-2409.2011.01037.x

Penner, L. A., Hagiwara, N., Eggly, S., Gaertner, S. L., Albrecht, T. L., & Dovidio, J. F. (2013). Racial healthcare disparities: A social psychological analysis. European Review of Social Psychology, 24(1), 70-122. doi:10.1080/10463283.2013.840973

Pierce, C. M. (1988). Stress in the workplace. In A.F. Coner-Edwards, J. Spurlock, A.F. Coner-Edwards, J. Spurlock (Eds.), Black families in crisis: The middle class (pp. 27-34). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Pentland, A. (2014). Social Physics: How social networks can make us smarter. New York: NY: Penguin Press.

Prochaska, J.O., & DiClemente, C.C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51(3), 390-395. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.51.3.390

Reber, A.S. (1993). Implicit learning and tacit knowledge: An essay on the cognitive unconscious. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Reber, P. J. (2013). The neural basis of implicit learning and memory: A review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging research. Neuropsychologia, 51(10), 2026-2042. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.06.019

Schore, A. N. (2005). A neuropsychoanalytic viewpoint: Commentary on paper by Steven H. Knoblauch. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 15(6), 829-854. doi:10.2513/s10481885pd1506_3

Schore, A.N. (2011). The right brain implicit self lies at the core. Psychoanalytic Dialogue, 21, 75-100. doi:10.1080/10481885.2011.545329

Schacter, D. L. (1992). Understanding implicit memory: A cognitive neuroscience approach. American Psychologist, 47, 559–569. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.4.559

Schacter, D. L. (1995). Implicit memory: A new frontier for cognitive science. In M. S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), In the cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schacter, D. L. (1998). Memory and awareness. Science, 280(5360), 59-60. doi:10.1126/science.280.5360.59

Steele, C. M., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 797-811. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.69.5.797

Sheeran, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2013). Nonconscious processes and health. Health Psychology, 32(5), 460-473. doi:10.1037/a0029203

Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271-286. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271

Sue, D.W., & Sue, D.S. (2008). Counseling the Culturally Diverse: Theory and Practice, (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Tronick, E., & Beeghly, M. (2011). Infants’ meaning-making and development of mental health problems. American Psychologist, 66(2), 107–119. doi:10.1037/a0021631

Vidoni, E.D., & Boyd, L.A. (2007). Achieving enlightenment: What do we know about the implicit learning system and its interaction with explicit knowledge? Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy, 31, 145- 154. doi:10.1097/NPT.0b013e31814b148e

Wallin, D.J. (2007). Attachment in psychotherapy. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Wampold, B. (2010). The research evidence for the common factors models: A historically situated perspective. In B. Duncan, S. Miller, B. Wampold & M. Hubble (Eds.), The heart and soul of change: Delivering what works in therapy. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Press.

Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249-268. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.249

Weisz, J. R., Kuppens, S., Eckshtain, D., Ugueto, A. M., Hawley, K. M., & Jensen-Doss, A. (2013). Performance of evidence-based youth psychotherapies compared with usual clinical care: A multilevel meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(7), 750-761. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.1176

Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. O. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. Conflict, compromise, and connectionism. Journal of The American Psychoanalytic Association, 50(1), 53-98. doi:10.1177/00030651020500011501

Westen, D., Novotny, C. M., & Thompson-Brenner, H. (2004). The empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies: Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin, 130(4), 631-663. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.130.4.631

Wilson, T. (2002). Strangers to ourselves: Discovering the adaptive unconscious. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

  1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work [SPECIFY PERIOD OF TIME] after publication simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
  2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.
  3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).